Selenium WebDriver Basic Commands in Java

What is Selenium Webdriver:

Selenium Web Driver accepts commands (sent in Selenese, or via a Client API) and sends them to a browser. This is implemented through a browser-specific browser driver, which sends commands to a browser and retrieves results.It also provides a test domain-specific language (Selenese) to write tests in a number of popular programming languages, including C#, Groovy, Java, Perl, PHP, Python, Ruby and Scala. The tests can then run against most modern web browsers. Selenium runs on Windows, Linux, and macOS. It is open-source software released under the Apache License 2.0.

1. Browser property setup

To launch a different type of browsers we need to follow the below command.

  • Chrome:

System.setProperty(“”, “/path/to/chromedriver”);

  • Firefox:

System.setProperty(“webdriver.gecko.driver”, “/path/to/geckodriver”);

  • Internet Explore:

System.setProperty(“webdriver.edge.driver”, “P/path/to/MicrosoftWebDriver”);

2. Browser Initialization

Once the driver is downloaded for a specific browser, QA need the setProperty() method to define the path for that driver before writing any test cases. This helps the Selenium WebDriver identify the browser on which tests are to be executed.

  • Chrome: 

WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver();

  • Firefox:

WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver();

  • Internet Explorer:

WebDriver driver = new InternetExplorerDriver();

3. Desired capabilities

Desired Capabilities is a class used to declare a set of basic requirements such as combinations of browsers, operating systems, browser versions, etc. to perform automated cross browser testing of a web application.

  • Chrome: 

DesiredCapabilities caps = new DesiredCapabilities(); caps.setCapability(“browserName”, “chrome”); caps.setCapability(“browserVersion”, “80.0””); caps.setCapability(“platformName”, “win10”);WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(caps); // Pass the capabilities as an argument to the driver object.

  • Firefox: 

DesiredCapabilities caps = new DesiredCapabilities(); caps.setCapability(“browserName”, “firefox”); caps.setCapability(“browserVersion”, “81.0””); caps.setCapability(“platformName”, “win10”); WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(caps); // Pass the capabilities as an argument to the driver object.

4. Browser options

  • Chrome: 

ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
chromeOptions.setBinary(“C:Program Files (x86)GoogleChromeApplicationchrome.exe”); // if chrome is not in default location
chromeOptions.addArguments(“–headless”); // Passing single option
chromeOptions.addArguments(“–start-maximized”, “–incognito”,”–disable-notifications” ); // Passing multiple optionsWebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions); // Pass the capabilities as an argument to the driver object.

  • Firefox:

FirefoxOptions firefoxOptions = new FirefoxOptions(); firefoxOptions.setBinary(new FirefoxBinary(new File(“C:Program FilesMozilla Firefox_x000C_irefox.exe”)));
firefoxOptions.setHeadless(true);WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(caps); // Pass the capabilities as an argument to the driver object.

5. Navigation 

  • Navigate to URL : 

driver.navigate().to(“”)Method — get() method waits till the page is loaded while navigate() does not.Method — get() does not store history while navigate() does.All the URL loaded in browser will be stored in history and navigate method allows us to access it. Try executing the below codedriver.get(“”);

  • Refresh page:


  • Navigate forwards in browser history:


  • Navigate backwards in browser history:


6. Find element v/s Find elements

  • driver.findElement()

When no match is found(0) throws NoSuchElementException
when 1 match found returns a WebElement instance
when 2+ matches found returns only the first matching web element

  • driver.findElements()

when no macth is found (0) returns an empty list
when 1 match found returns a list with one WebElement
when 2+ matches found returns a list with all matching WebElements

7. Locator Strategy For Any Web Objects

What are Locators? Locator is a command that tells Selenium IDE which GUI elements ( say Text Box, Buttons, Check Boxes etc) its needs to operate on. Identification of correct GUI elements is a prerequisite to creating an automation script.

  • By id

element = driver.findElement(“login”))

  • By Class Name

element = driver.findElement(By.className(“Content”));

  • By Name

element = driver.findElement(“pswd”));

  • By Tag Name

element = driver.findElement(By.tagName(“div”));

  • By Link Text

Newselement = driver.findElement(By.linkText(“News”));

  • By XPath

element=driver.findElement(By.xpath(“//input[@placeholder=’Username’]”));List of Keywords — and, or, contains(), starts-with(), text(), last()

  • By CSS Selector

element = driver.findElement(By.cssSelector(“input.username”));

8. Click on an element

  • click() — method is used to click on web element.


9. Write text inside an element — input and text area

  • sendKeys() — method is used to send data


10. Clear text from text box

  • clear() — method is used to clear text from text area


11. Select a drop-down

// single select option

// multiple select option


  • selectByVisibleText() / selectByValue() / selectByIndex()
  • deselectByVisibleText() / deselectByValue() / deselectByIndex()

// import statements for select class
import;// Single selection
Select country = new Select(driver.findElement(“country”)));
country.selectByVisibleText(“Canada”); // using selectByVisibleText() method
country.selectByValue(“MX”); //using selectByValue() method//Selecting Items in a Multiple SELECT elements
Select fruits = new Select(driver.findElement(“fruits”)));
fruits.selectByIndex(1); // using selectByIndex() method

12. Get methods in Selenium

  • getTitle() — used to retrieve the current title of the webpage
  • getCurrentUrl() — used to retrieve the current URL of the webpage
  • getPageSource() — used to retrieve the current page source
    of the webpage
  • getText() — used to retrieve the text of the specified web element
  • getAttribute() —used to retrieve the value specified in the attribute

13. Handle alerts: (Web based alert pop-ups)

  • driver.switchTO().alert.getText() — to retrieve the alert message
  • driver.switchTO().alert.accept() — to accept the alert box
  • driver.switchTO().alert.dismiss() — to cancel the alert box
  • driver.switchTO().alert.sendKeys(“Text”) — to send data to the alert box

14. Switch frames

  • driver.switchTo.frame(int frameNumber) — mentioning the frame index number, the Driver will switch to that specific frame
  • driver.switchTo.frame(string frameNameOrID) — mentioning the frame element or ID, the Driver will switch to that specific frame
  • driver.switchTo.frame(WebElement frameElement) — mentioning the frame web element, the Driver will switch to that specific frame
  • driver.switchTo().defaultContent() — Switching back to the main window

15. Handle multiple windows and tabs

  • getWindowHandle() — used to retrieve handle of the current page (a unique identifier)
  • getWindowHandles() — used to retrieve a set of handles of the all the pages available
  • driver.switchTo().window(“windowName/handle”) — switch to a window
  • driver.close() — closes the current browser window

16. Waits in selenium

There are 3 types of waits in selenium,

  • Implicit Wait— used to wait for a  amount of time before throwing an exception

driver.manage().timeouts().implicitlyWait(10, TimeUnit.SECONDS);

  • Explicit Wait — used to wait until a certain condition occurs before executing the code.

WebDriverWait wait = new WebDriverWait(driver,30);

List of explicit wait:


  • Fluent Wait — defines the maximum amount of time to wait for a certain condition to appear

Wait wait = new FluentWait(WebDriver reference)

WebElement foo=wait.until(new Function() {
public WebElement apply(WebDriver driver) {
return driver.findElement(“foo”));

17. Element validation

  • isEnabled() — determines if an element is enabled or not, returns a boolean.
  • isSelected() — determines if an element is selected or not, returns a boolean.
  • isDisplayed() — determines if an element is displayed or not, returns a boolean.

18. Handling proxy

  • Chrome:

ChromeOptions options = new ChromeOptions();// Create object Proxy class – Approach 1
Proxy proxy = new Proxy();
proxy.setHttpProxy(“username:password.myhttpproxy:3337”);// register the proxy with options class – Approach 1
options.setCapability(“proxy”, proxy);

// Add a ChromeDriver-specific capability.
ChromeDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(options);

  • Firefox:

FirefoxOptions options = new FirefoxOptions();// Create object Proxy class – Approach 2
Proxy proxy = new Proxy();
proxy.setSocksPassword(“password”)// register the proxy with options class – Approach 2
options.setProxy(proxy);// create object to firefx driver
WebDriver driver = new FirefoxDriver(options);

19. Window management

  • Get window size:

Access each dimension individually
int width = driver.manage().window().getSize().getWidth();
int height = driver.manage().window().getSize().getHeight();
store the dimensions and query them laterDimension size = driver.manage().window().getSize();
int width1 = size.getWidth();
int height1 = size.getHeight();

  • Set window size:

driver.manage().window().setSize(new Dimension(1024, 768));

  • Get window position:

 Access each dimension individually
int x = driver.manage().window().getPosition().getX();
int y = driver.manage().window().getPosition().getY();

// Or store the dimensions and query them later
Point position = driver.manage().window().getPosition();
int x1 = position.getX();
int y1 = position.getY();

  • Set window position:

 Move the window to the top left of the primary monitor
driver.manage().window().setPosition(new Point(0, 0));

  • Maximise window:


  • Fullscreen window:


20. Page loading strategy

The document.readyState property of a document describes the loading state of the current document. By default, WebDriver will hold off on responding to a driver.get() (or) driver.navigate().to() call until the document ready state is completeBy default, when Selenium WebDriver loads a page, it follows the normal pageLoadStrategy.

  • normal:

ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);

  • eager: When set to eager, Selenium WebDriver waits until DOMContentLoaded event fire is returned.

ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);

  • note: When set to Selenium WebDriver  waits until the initial page is downloaded.

ChromeOptions chromeOptions = new ChromeOptions();
WebDriver driver = new ChromeDriver(chromeOptions);

21. Keyboard and Mouse events

Action class is used to handle keyboard and mouse events

keyboard events:

  • keyDown()
  • keyUp()
  • sendKeys()

Mouse events:

  • clickAndHold()
  • contextClick() — peforms the mouse right click action
  • doubleClick()
  • dragAndDrop(source,target)
  • dragAndDropBy(source,xOffset,yOffset)
  • moveByOffset(xOffset,yOffset)
  • moveByElement()
  • release()

Actions builder = new Actions(driver);Action actions = builder
.keyDown(“login-textbox”, Keys.SHIFT)
.sendKeys(“login-textbox”, “hello”)
.keyUp(“login-textbox”, Keys.SHIFT)
    actions.perform() ;

22. Cookies

  • addCookie(arg)

driver.manage().addCookie(new Cookie(“foo”, “bar”));

  • getCookies()

driver.manage().getCookies(); -To get all cookies

  • getCookieNamed()


  • deleteCookieNamed()


  • deleteCookie()

Cookie cookie1 = new Cookie(“test2”, “cookie2”);
driver.manage().addCookie(cookie1);driver.manage().deleteCookie(cookie1); – Deleting cookie object

  • deleteAllCookies()

driver.manage().deleteAllCookies(); – Deletes all cookies

23. Take screenshot:

  • getScreenshotAs — used to Capture the screenshot and store it in the specified location. This method throws WebDriverException. copy() method from File Handler class is used to store the screeshot in a destination folder

TakesScreenshot screenShot= (TakesScreenshot)driver;FileHandler.copy(screenShot.getScreenshotAs(OutputType.FILE), new File(“path/to/destination/folder/screenshot.png”));

24. Execute Javascript:

  • executeAsyncScript() — executes an asynchronous piece of JavaScript
  • executeScript() — executes JavaScript

if(driver instanceof JavascriptExecutor) {
    ((JavascriptExecutor)driver).executeScript(“alert(‘hello world’)”);

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